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We ask that comments and discussion on this series be made in the Yahoo groups from, eventChemistry.


SBF1 – Introduction to the Sowa-Ballard Framework


SBF3 – Data regularity within the Ontological Primitives

SBF4Mapping Viewpoints and Differences Between Viewpoints


The Sowa -Ballard Framework 2


Ontological Primitives, derived by Sowa and Ballard



Suppose that 100 events have been considered. 


Domain space = { E l | l = 1, . . . , 100 }


In each case, the Sowa-Ballard Framework has been filled out through:


1)      Interactive knowledge elicitation involving human dialog.

2)      Some artificial intelligence process that fills in anticipated cell values using a theory of type related to each framework slot.


The Domain space is now described by 1900 individual data pieces


 { < a(0), a(1), a(2), . .  . , a(18) > l   | l = 1, . . . , 100  }


{  a(0) l   | l = 1, . . . , 100  } are the event names, derived by a prior process


{  a(1) l   | l = 1, . . . , 100  } are the (1,1,1) cell values of the 3*2*3 matrix that represents the framework,


and so on.  We will use the notation {  a(i) l   } = {  a(i) l   | l = 1, . . . , 100  }, for a fixed index element i.  The size of the set {  a(i) l   } is less than or equal to 100.  If values are repeated then the size of this set is smaller, and can be quite small, say 30 or so if values are repeated often.  This reduction in size of sets is the data regularity that we are looking for and will visualize as categorical Abstraction.


The 3*2*3 framework matrix is derived in Ballard’s upcoming paper: “On the Evolution of a Commercial Ontology”.   The fundamental enumerations of the three dimensions are as follows:



independent (I), relative (R), mediating (M)


physical (P), abstract (A)


occurrent (O), continuant (C), universal (U)


The 18 cells are then derived (by Ballard) as


{ process (IPO), script (IAO), object (IPC), schema (IAC), measure (IPU), definition (IAU),

participation (RPO), history (RAO), juncture (RPC), description (RAC), interaction (RPU),relativity (RAU),

situation (MPO), purpose (MAO), structure (MPC), reason (MAC), law (MPU), formalism (MAU) }


The derivation is straight forward, for example “mediating / abstract / universal” is rendered as “law”.  So for each of the 100 events, those aspects of law that are involved in the event is recorded into the (3,1,3) cell.  Ballard justifies this assignment as


·        Definition:  “The role played by physical constraints in limiting choice, function, and achievable results.”

·        Representations: “Science, phenomenology, physical theory, statutory and statistical laws, human nature, economics, life experience, common sense, heuristics.”

·        Views: “Rules and conditions with immutable consequences.”


The other cells are also so justified. 


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